Seal script is an older style of Chinese writing, Early writing everywhere was probably made with a finger. a stick or a bone in sand or mud or scraping something onto or off a surface such as a hard stone on a soft boulder and writing was taking something away from a surface or adding something to it.
Brush by Janney
Many Chinese characters were created during stick or stone period and later the brush enabled more artistic variation. During this time there was also a geographical/political consolidation of character meanings to create a common written language alongside different spoken languages.
The phonetic visual experience is more like a minimal artist’s preliminary sketch compared to the visual experience of the Chinese character being more like a painting containing more complex information but less specific detail than a phonetic sentence. A reader must on their own interpret the contextual relationship meanings of the characters through the expression of the calligrapher.
Brush by Janney
Most people think of science as a “bunch of facts about the universe that you memorize, and its such a pain that many would rather be dong something else.
Instead think of science as A Way of Knowing, as opposed to a bunch of facts and what we call scientific knowledge, or facts, change through time because improvements in the way science knows things changes (improves?).
For hundreds of thousands of years air was considered nothing, we called it air, people looked across the land and saw a mountain and we could see it because there was nothing in between, and then it turns out there are a bunch of small particles the human eye cannot see; science and technology developed by science enabled us to “see” them , i.e. to “know” them.
The one thing that separates scientific “knowing” from all others is every human being (almost) has the same natural sensual capabilites to experience the universe through our five senses—seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and touching.
Scientific methodology is based on using the common human senses—human tools— for experiencing the universe, a common subject-object relationship.
I see, touch, smell , taste and hear and you see, touch, smell, taste and hear and that experience is similar enough for all humans to constitute a reality.
This is different than having a dream or a religious experience. While we all have faith and feelings and we all have dreams, those experiences are unique to the individual while the sense experiences among humans are common.
By setting rules for methodological commonality science increases its own ability to experience the universe and remake itself while faith and belief only require the same “commitment ” over and over, through time, never growing, never learning,
Scientific methodology uses only information from empirical experiences which anyone can have. I tell you I see a red car and you look over and see a red car and even if you do not look you will accept that I saw a red car. It works.
I have a (sleeping) dream that a dog is going to bite me, You cannot have that dream. I may “believe” that a dog will bite me but if you are driving us to work and my fear wants you to drive 30 minutes out of our way, you will not do it. It would be a waste of your time because you do not “know” i.e. do not believe, that a dream is an acceptable method of knowing, at least not good enough on which to waste 30 minutes of your life.
Scientists agree that they will only use sensual data using the five senses and technological tools which are extensions of those senses.
Furthermore, they agree to accurately and in enough detail to report the conditions under which the sensual experience occurred so that another scientist can duplicate the experience and see if they had the same experience or at least so another scientist can evaluate their methodology.
The scientific method is a common and specific set of behavioral standards as well as a commitment to a common and specific set of behavioral standards be used in “knowing.” And anyone using the scientific methodology can check anyone else.
The “How science knows” capabilities are increased by the“ what science knows” through developing technological innovations which increases the ability of science to critic itself, to experience inmate detail and results n unending updating of scientific knowledge, When science “disproves” its own knowledge the result is increased knowledge, not destruction of knowledge.
Still many questions cannot be answered by science, The future is unknown, there may be some people somewhere who “guess” it correctly but science is the most practical and consistently correct methodology for prediction.
Still somehow for many it does not seem to matter how accurately the future can be predicted, some just do not care what it is.
gate gate paragate